Friday, 7 October 2016

12 principles of animation

1. Squash and stretch -
Giving a sense of weight and flexibility to models, the objects volume must not change.
2. staging -
Similar to staging in theatres, you must draw the audiences attention to a specific point whether that's a character or an object.

3. straight ahead action and pose to pose -
"Straight ahead action" is when you draw a scene frame by frame from beginning to end while "Pose to pose" is when you draw in key frames and then fill in the blanks.

4. slow in and slow out -
Acceleration and deceleration, a car doesn't go 0 to 60 in an instant, it takes time to build up speed and the same goes with everything whether that's someone winding up for a punch or a ball being dropped.

5. arc -
Most actions have a trajectory, a thrown object will first go up and then down to land on the target, however with increased velocity the arc becomes flatter, a ball being thrown and a ball being shot out of a machine will have drastically different arcs.
Most mechanical movement is shown in straight lines rather than arcs.

6. secondary action -
Secondary actions are often added to give the scene a sense of life or expression, whether is someones hair flowing in the wind as they run or a cannon rolling back after firing it's load, it adds a sense of realism.

7. timing -
the number of frames for a given action, less frames means an increase in speed while more frames decreases speed, for example a ball being thrown straight up will start with many frames showing the increase in speed, less frames will be used while the ball is travelling up, as it approaches the pinnacle of it's flight it will slow down as gravity pushes it back, this will have many frames to show it slowing down.

8. solid drawing -
Using three dimensional space in your animations, this allows you to add volume or weight to your creations, a box will only look like a square until you use shading to show it's interaction with the ground it sits upon.

9. appeal -
to appeal to the viewer is to make the characters seem real, a good villain will make the audience react from his mere presence while a non-charismatic hero will leave the audience not caring about what happens to them.

10. anticipation -
Simply put it's preparing the viewer for an action, the wind up for a swing or looking off screen to build up anticipation for what is on the other side.

11. exaggeration -
Mostly used in cartoons exaggeration is when you want to make something seem less realistic, do you want the angry man to yell or do you want him to flail his arms around, go red in the face and scream with unrelenting rage that contorts his features?

12. follow through and overlapping action -
"Follow through" - To move beyond the end point, for example a man swings an axe at a tree, once he hits his target his body doesn't go rigid, the motion carries on, he leans forward, his arms tighten from the impact or in a cartoon sense he swings right through the tree and spins 90 degrees in exaggeration.

"Overlapping action" -
the movement of objects at different rates, for example a man lifts both arms but one moves fast than the other, perhaps in an attempt to shield himself from multiple thrown objects.

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